The Create Signal Library (CSL) [Pope and Ramakrishnan, 2003], pronounced ``Sizzle'', is a general purpose C++ library for digital audio processing mainly designed by Stephen Travis Pope, also author of the Mode and Siren frameworks (see section 2.4). The first implementation dates back to 1998 when it was called the CREATE Oscillator or CO. But the current implementation was started by students in 2002. CSL has been used to build stand-alone applications, interactive installations, MIDI instruments, and light-weight plug-ins.
CSL programs are written in standard C++ and linked against the library. CSL has no graphical interface but GUIs are expected to be built for manipulating patches. CSL is not a music representation language rather it is a low-level signal processing and synthesis engine.
CSL works on Linux, Unix (Solaris, Iris, OpenBSD), and MacOSX. Windows is supported but some features (such as abstraction for network and threads) are missing .
CSL applications can be controlled via Siren (see 2.4) or MIDI messages. CSL has no scheduler, it simply responds to incoming control messages as fast as it can. CSL has no notion of time but unit generators may have state.
The goals of the CSL project can be summarized in the framework being a scalable, portable, and flexible network-driven sound synthesis package . By scalable, the author means ``orchestrascalable'': large groups of instruments with complex synthesis models. This scalability will be accomplished by running clusters of CSL-based synthesis and processing server programs on many computers connected by a fast LAN. Portable means that the software must not depend on any hardware platform or operating system. It is written in standard C++ and uses hardware abstraction classes for I/O ports, network interfaces and thread APIs. Flexible means that the library should support several techniques of sound synthesis or processing and also be useful for embedding in other applications.
In a CSL program there are C++ objects called ``unit generators''. They can be connected using C++ variables representing their inputs and outputs. In order to connect an object A to the input of object B a simple method must be called: B.root(A). The scheduling is done by pull. The output device asks for samples and this request is propagated.
The CSL library consists of several components: (1) The object framework for the synthesis/processing engine; (2) The unit generator class library; (3) The start-up, configuration and system save/restore facilities; (4) The OSC control interfaces; (5) The database interface for sound samples and spectra; (6) The CRAM interface for managing multiple CSL instances over a network.
The OO domain model consists of abstractions for objects that create or process blocks of samples (Buffer, FrameStream, SampleStream, Processor...); objects representing control variables (StaticVariable, DymanicVariable...); objects that connect to I/O driver (IO and its subclasses); and objects that help manage CSL patches and instrument libraries.
The heart of CSL is its unit generator and signal processing class library: the subclasses of FrameStream. There are several ``control sources'' such as wavetable oscillators, noise sources, chaotic generators, FFT/IFFT. Signal processors such as filters and panners take synthesis graphs as inputs. They are subclasses of both FrameStream and the mix-in Processor class. CSL includes canonical form FIR filters, panners, mixers, convolution and flexible delay lines. Simple operators are handled by the AddOp and MulOp unit generator.
A CSL program is a graph of DSP units, generally a number of patches (subgraphs) connected to a mixer. This graph has a single root node, usually the output unit generator or a mixer taking several subgraphs at its inputs. Different sound file formats can be loaded into a graph. The evaluation of a graph is triggered by the pull of an IO object (an instance of the IO class) that is usually connected to a direct output API such as PortAudio [Bencina and Burk, 2001], to a socket-base network protocol or a sound file.
The blocks of samples can be sent through sockets using a protocol based on UDP in which data packets have a header that incorporates an instance ID and sequence number. The mixer and the spatializer are CSL programs that perform no synthesis but instead read sample blocks from other CSL instances over a network and process them.
CSL can be used in distributed systems. The framework is callable from Open Sound Control [Wright, 1998a] or Corba. Its output samples can be sent directly to an output device or to a network socket. Process in different machines support inter-machine sample streaming and are integrated in the CREATE Real-Time Application Manager [Pope et al., 2001].
In the basic CSL framework there is no essential difference between constant values, control signals and audio signals. Samples are usually 32 bits floats though this can be changed to integer or 64 bits with a single definition. All processing is done in blocks typically between 32 and 1024 sample frame in size. Envelopes are breakpoint functions of time. There are helper classes that provide constructors for standard envelope types: triangle, AR, ADSR, various windows, etc...
The main declarations are in the FrameStream.h file which defines the following classes: Buffer, the basic n-channel sample buffer class; FrameStream, the central abstraction in CSL; SampleStream, an l-channel frame stream; Processor, a mix-in for framestreams that process an input frame stream; Writeable, a mix-in for framestreams that one can write into; Phased, a mix-in for framestreams with phase accumulators; Positionable, a mix-in for framestreams that one can position; IO, an input/output stream or driver abstraction.
Instances of the Buffer class represent multi-channel sample buffers. They have memory pointers to sample storage as well as a set of flags about the storage state (allocated, zero, populated...). FrameStreams are objects that can generate buffers of frames where a frame is a collection of samples that are meant to be manipulated simultaneously. SampleStream is a FrameStream of special importance. It is a one channel FrameStream that copies the single channel to all its outputs. The class Gestalt has static methods for the sample rate, default buffer size, safe memory allocation. ThreadedFrameStream uses a background thread to compute samples. It caches buffers from its producing subgraphs and feeds them to its consumer thread on demand. It controls the scheduling of the producer. This introduces latency but not jitter. When FrameStreams and Processors need different buffer sizes, a BlockResizer object can be placed between two elements of the DSP graph.
An Instrument has a DSP graph, a set of reflective accessors and a list of envelopes. The DSP graph is the instrument's ``patch'', the accessors define the controls and the envelope list holds the envelopes that need to be triggered to start a new note. Using the instrument/accessor framework one can set a CSL program to respond to commands coming from a variety of sources such as OSC, MIDI, CORBA or score file readers.
There are several versions of the CSL main() although in some uses CSL is not even involved in the main(). Since CSL is simply a C++ class, it can be used in different ways: incorporate it as a component of another application, use CSL to build plug-ins, build an application with a graphical user interface than controls CSL synthesis and processing.
Different applications have been developed using CSL:
Sensing/Speaking Space is an interactive audio/video installation. A computer vision system analyzes the movement of spectators and sends OSC messages to a sound synthesis server. The first version of the server was written in Supercollider (see 2.6.1) but suffered from low reliability, excessive memory usage (1 GB) and poor debuggability. The final version written in CSL was very reliable during a week and sounded just like the first version. In both versions the code is about 1200 lines, including helper classes and a GUI with sliders to mix different layers.
Ouroboros is an application for processing, sampling, and looping audio input and sound files. In this case, CSL is not used for processing, the program hosts AudioUnits, the standard plug-in format for MacOSX, and lets the users create graphs of AudioUnits to process sound. CSL is used for simplifying the reading and writing of audio files and for capturing and looping the sound. OndeCorner is an AudioUnit plug-in written in CSL. It transforms audio to the wavelet domain and lets users modify coefficients with a variety of processes. Apart from being an example of plug-in writing in CSL it also shows how to integrate DSP code from different sources.
The Reverb plug-in was developed on a graduate course on spatial sound, when students used CSL to implement reverberation algorithms. It was later used for a convolution-based reverberator and HRTF-based spatializer using the FFTW library.
The Expert Mastering Assistant is the largest project using CSL. It is an expert system that uses fine-grained multi-level music analysis to suggest parameters for signal processing to be applied during music mastering. It uses a combination of CSL, AudioUnits and third-party DSP code.
CSL is still in its first stages of development and the authors recognize not feeling particularly comfortable with the C++ language. Nevertheless this first approach is already more important than it may seem. The main author is highly experienced, has designed other related environments (see 2.4, for instance) and may be considered an authority in the field. CSL is a clear recognition of two facts: (1) C++ is better suited than Smalltalk for building efficient audio frameworks, and (2) languages like Supercollider (see 2.6.1) end-up not being convenient for building some efficient applications (the author presents the framework as a substitute of Supercollider for some particular tasks).